CLINICAL STUDY 1
50/50 feta bar with orange and 50/50 feta bar with strawberry

  • Glycemic index evaluation: GI 5.18 (very low) (Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2240-2250;
    doi:10.3390/nu6062240)

  • The product contains a specific composition of carbohydrates and ewe-goat whey proteins (1/1) prepared using cheese industry by-products as a primary material, which reduces oxidative stress and promotes endothelial function (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705018)

Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

The present study examined the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of a bio-functional food containing ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1.ratio. Nine healthy volunteers (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass index 24.2 ± 4.1 kg m2, body fat%, 18.6 ± 10.0) were randomly assigned to consume either a placebo food or an isocaloric bio-functional food, in two visits. Seven blood samples were collected during each visit. The first sample was taken after overnight fasting and the other six 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of the food. The plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculating the incremental area under the curve. The GL was measured using the equation: GI/100 g of available carbohydrates per tested food serving. The GI of the bio-functional food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, and the GL was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the test product can be classified as having a low GI (<55) and a low GL (<10). Considering the health benefits of foods with low glycemic response and the consumption of whey protein, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.

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CLINICAL STUDY 2
Effect on a special carbohydrate-protein bar and tomato juice supplementation on oxidative stress markers and vascular endothelial dynamics in ultra-marathon runners

It is well documented that exercise causes excessive production of reactive oxygen species that lead to oxidative stress, which is involved in oxidative damage to macro-molecules, immune dysfunction, muscle damage and fatigue. The present study examined the effect of administration of a special bar containing whey protein and carbohydrates at a specific ratio (1:1) in ultra-marathon runners for a period of two months (N = 16), prepared using cheese by-products as a primary material, as well as the administration of a commercially available tomato juice (N = 15). Active substances that react with thiobarbituric acid and protein carbonyls were significantly reduced in both groups in which the 2 products were administered and an increase was noted in the levels of reduced glutathione in the group that received the protein bar. Total antioxidant activity remained unchanged in both groups. The flow-mediated dilatation, which was used for the assessment of endothelial function, was increased in both groups, and a significant increase was noted only in the group given tomato juice. In conclusion, the administration of the two products in ultra-marathon runners for a two-month period significantly improved the oxidation status of the runners, while the tomato juice also improved their vascular endothelial function.

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CLINICAL STUDY 3
Recovery Bar with lemon flavour

Effect of a special carbohydrate-protein cake on oxidative stress markers after exhaustive cycling in humans

  • Exercise is linked to oxidative stress, which is related to muscle fatigue and reduced exercise performance

  • The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of administering a special cake (consisting of carbohydrates and whey protein at a 3.5:1 ratio) compared with an isocaloric placebo (carbohydrate only) cake in oxidative stress biomarkers on 9 men after exhaustive cycling.

  • The subjects initially carried out 2 hours of cycling in an ergometric bicycle, at 60-65% VO2max , followed by 4 hours of recovery and another hour of cycling at 60-65% VO2max which gradually increased to 95% (personal time-keeping).

  • The volunteers consumed the special or placebo cake 4 times after the first round took place (after the work out and every hour for the next 3 hours).

  • Blood samples were kept at 8 different time points: pre-work out, 30 minutes, 1.5 h, 4 h post-work out (first round) and post-work out (second round), 1 hour, 24 hours and 48 hours after the second trial.

  • Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase and glutathione (GSH) were determined spectrophotometrically.

  • The average time to exhaustion was not affected by the cake consumption. However, the consumption of the special cake reduced the TBARS significantly, but had no effect on the other biomarkers

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CLINICAL STUDY 4
Anti-inflammatory effects of a special carbohydrate-whey protein cake after exhaustive cycling in humans

  • Intense exercise stimulates an increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  • The current study’s aim was to examine the effect of administering a special cake (with a 3.5:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio) compared with an isocaloric carbohydrate-only cake, in inflammation markers, after exhaustive cycling in humans

  • Nine volunteers consumed either the special or the placebo cake and then performed 2 hours of cycling at 60-65% VO2max in an ergonomic bicycle, followed by 4 hours of recovery. Then, another hour of cycling took place, at 60-65% VO2max that increased up to 95% VO2max. Blood samples were taken at several time points: pre-work out, 30 minutes, 4 hours and 48 hours post-work out. The cake was consumed right after the work out but also every hour for the next 3 hours

  • According to the results, cake consumption had affected the pro-inflammatory IL-6 and CRP levels, as a decrease was noted after 4 hours (50% and 46% respectively).

  • Finally, anti-inflammatory IL-10 was 118% higher 4 hours after the work out, but the difference was not statistically important.

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